von Borries, Bodo. "Methods and Aims of Teaching History in Europe: A Report on Youth and History." In Knowing, Teaching, and Learning History: National and International Perspectives, edited by Peter N. Stearns, Peter Seixas and Sam Wineburg, 246-61. New York: New York University Press, 2000.
Here von Borries looks at the perspectives of European teachers and students on learning and teaching history extrapolated from the 1995 Youth and History study. Broadly, he found that “traditional” history teaching dominated students’ experiences even though many teachers identified alternative, or student-centred, methods as pedagogical practices, and that there were distinct differences between the priorities of teachers and students for learning history. Von Borries concludes the article by emphasizing that history education should not focus on students’ memorizing a canonical world history narrative, since they are unable to do this, but instead on a problem-centered model that does not depend on a textbook.